Xiaojie Hao, Rusko Ruskov, Ming Xiao, Charles Tahan, HongWen Jiang
Silicon quantum dots are a leading approach for solid-state quantum bits. However, developing this technology is complicated by the multi-valley nature of silicon. Here we observe transport of individual electrons in a silicon CMOS-based double quantum dot under electron spin resonance. An anticrossing of the driven dot energy levels is observed when the Zeeman and valley splittings coincide. A detected anticrossing splitting of 60 MHz is interpreted as a direct measure of spin and valley mixing, facilitated by spin–orbit interaction in the presence of non-ideal interfaces. A lower bound of spin dephasing time of 63 ns is extracted. We also describe a possible experimental evidence of an unconventional spin–valley blockade, despite the assumption of non-ideal interfaces. This understanding of silicon spin–valley physics should enable better control and read-out techniques for the spin qubits in an all CMOS silicon approach.